The Korean Writing SystemSyllablesNounsPredicatesFormal and Informal SpeechPre-Final and Final EndingsSpeech LevelAdding ㅓ or ㅏ to a predicate stemWords with 받침Adding 으 to predicates stemsThe Deferential Speech LevelThe Intimate Speech LevelThe Polite Speech LevelThe Plain Speech LevelThe Honorific Ending 시Irregular PredicatesParticlesThe Subject Particle 가 and 이The object particle 를 and 을The Topic Particle 는 and 은Forming a Sentence이다 and 아니다있다 and 없다NegationPast TensePredicates as ModifiersDeterminersBound NounsExpressing desire with 고 싶다NumbersCountersQuestionsThe Particle 에The Plural Particle 들The Possessive Particle 의The Particle 에서The Particle 도The Particle 부터The Particle 까지The Particle 만

The Honorific Ending 시

The honorifix pre-final ending is added to a predicate stem ending in a vowel is added to a predicate stem ending in a consonant. When 시 is added to a predicate's stem, the subject associated with the predicate is honored. A subject will often be honored consistent with their age or rank in society. As a result, the suffix 시 is often colocated with formal speech  and honorific nouns.
 승규 
This person is 승규's teacher.
The honorific suffix is addded as 세요 or 으세요 in the polite speech level.
     
Those who have already done it, please go towards to the left.
   
Mother, because the weather is cold please dress warmly.
When the honorific suffix 시 precedes the past tense ending, the ending becomes 셨 or 으셨.
   ?
Did you have suffer many hardships?
Even though a subject may be honored, the predicate itself may be conjugated in informal speech. In the following phrase, the predicate's subject is honored while the predicate itself is conjugated in the plain speech level.
  ?
When does grandfather return?
previousnext