The Korean Writing SystemSyllablesNounsPredicatesFormal and Informal SpeechPre-Final and Final EndingsSpeech LevelAdding ㅓ or ㅏ to a predicate stemWords with 받침Adding 으 to predicates stemsThe Deferential Speech LevelThe Intimate Speech LevelThe Polite Speech LevelThe Plain Speech LevelThe Honorific Ending 시Irregular PredicatesParticlesThe Subject Particle 가 and 이The object particle 를 and 을The Topic Particle 는 and 은Forming a Sentence이다 and 아니다있다 and 없다NegationPast TensePredicates as ModifiersDeterminersBound NounsExpressing desire with 고 싶다NumbersCountersQuestionsThe Particle 에The Plural Particle 들The Possessive Particle 의The Particle 에서The Particle 도The Particle 부터The Particle 까지The Particle 만

Irregular Predicates

Some predicates have irregular conjugations. Irregular predicates may conjugate based on patterns or only in specific situations.

Rules not based on patterns

While not exhausitive we show examples of irregular predicates which are not based on patterns.
The predicate  and  are both conjugated irregularly in the polite and intimate  speech level. 이에요 and 이야 are affixed to a noun ending in a vowel. 예요 and 야 are affixed to a noun ending in a consonant.
PredicatePolite Speech LevelIntimate Speech Level이에요이야예요아니에요아니야
말다 is conjugated irregularly in the polite and intimate  imperative
PredicatePolite ImperativeIntimate Imperative마요 or 말아요
ㄷ Irregular Predicates
If a predicate is ㄷ-irregular, then ㄷ will become ㄹ when joined with a suffix that starts with a vowel.
PredicateConjugationIrregularyesno
ㅂ Irregular Predicates
If a predicate is ㅂ-irregular, then ㅂ will become 오 or 우 when joined with a suffix that starts with a vowel.
PredicateConjugationIrregular아름다yesno
ㅅ Irregular Predicates
If a predicate is ㅅ irregular, then ㅅ will be deleted when joined with a suffix that starts with a vowel.
PredicateConjugationIrregularyesno
ㅎ Irregular Predicates
If a predicate is ㅎ irregular then the ㅎ in the final syllable of the stem is removed when a suffix which begins with a vowel is added to the predicate stem.
PredicateConjugationIrregular이래yesno
르 Irregular Predicates
If a predicate is 르 irregular then ㅡ is removed from the stem and a ㄹ is added as a 받침 to the syllable before 르 when a suffix which begins with 어 or 아 is added. All 르 predicates are 르 irregular except 따르다.
PredicateConjugationIrregularyes저질yesno
ㄹ Irregular Predicates
If a suffix beginning with ㄴ, ㅂ, or ㅅ is added to a predicate stem with a ㄹ 받침, then the ㄹ is removed. This behaviour applies to all predicate stems ending in ㄹ.
PredicateConjugation
으 Irregular Predicates
If the final letter of a predicate is ㅡ then ㅡ is removed when a suffix which begins with a vowel is added. This behaviour applies to all predicate stems ending in ㅡ.
PredicateConjugation
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